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A signal transduction pathway is initiated when a __ binds to a receptor. The binding of the ligand causes the release of __, which in turn activates molecules known as __ and __. These last two molecules activate other proteins that are responsible for regulating cell function. In this blog post we will discuss how these protein complexes regulate various cellular functions such as proliferation, differentiation, and survival.
The __ is a crucial element of the signaling process. They are located on __ in cell membranes and can be either sufficient or necessary for activation of the signaling pathway.
Signal transduction pathways: When receptors bind to their corresponding ligands, they trigger a phosphorylation cascade which leads to protein synthesis and regulation of gene expression. This sequence starts with an enzyme referred to as kinase binding to its substrate (the receptor) that has been activated by ATP. The active site within the enzyme binds specifically with phosphate groups on one side of the target molecule, leading it into a position where another molecule called ADP gets bound – this locks up ATP so there’s no more left over for other reactions elsewhere in cells’ cytop most important signaling molecules, regulators of cell function are the __ and __.
The first protein complex we will discuss is known as a receptor-associated tyrosine kinase (RAP). The RAP molecule functions by docking to receptors on the outside surface of cells. When this occurs it catalyzes phosphorylation reactions involving both itself and other proteins such that they become activated or inactivated. This results in downstream effects like regulation of gene expression, growth factors release, cytoskeletal dynamics etc., all having profound effects on cellular behavior – proliferation, differentiation or apoptosis.
Every time you make contact with your mobile phone screen for example, there’s an exchange between the cell membrane receptor and associated ligand which causes activation of the cell-signaling to initiate the cascading effects.
This is just an example of a signal transduction pathway from receptor to signal transduction!
The Path from Receptor to Signal Transduction: It’s All About the Phosphorylation