Share This Article
The reactions below are the ones you’ll see most often in organic chemistry. We’ve included some tips for each one that will make your life easier, and a link to our chegg study guide so you can easily access more information about it.
Tip 1: The best conditions for this reaction are: (1) anhydrous solvents, and (2) heat.
Tip 2: Addition of acid is not required for this reaction; however, if there is no acid present then adding base will help promote the reaction by making water less soluble.
Reaction 1: hydrochloric acid with N-methylmorpholine nitrate as catalyst under refluxing conditions yields 4-nitrophenol
Reaction 16: hydrochloric acid with pyridine as catalyst under refluxing conditions yields di-p-toluidine.
Tip 17: The products of this reaction will precipitate out if you add a base (i.e. NaOH, KOH) to the solution before it has had time to cool down and solidify from its initial hot state in order to isolate them without losing too much product mass due to their high solubility at higher temperatures.
Reaction 21: using sulfuric acid and dichloromethane as solvent produces chloroform and sodium sulfate.
The reactions below are not included on our list because they are less common or have been replaced by other reactions.
Reaction 16: hydrochloric acid with triethylamine as catalyst under refluxing conditions yields di-p-toluidine.
Reactions 21 onwards are not included because they have been replaced by other reactions or used less often than the ones on our list, which are more common in modern laboratories today. For example, modern labs nowadays prefer to use dichloromethane as a solvent, not sulfuric acid.
Reaction 22: using anhydrous zinc chloride in tetrahydrofuran produces o-chlorobenzaldehyde and benzene.
The reactions below are not included on our list because they have been replaced by other reactions or used less often than the ones on our list, which are more common in modern laboratories today. For example, modern labs nowadays prefer to use tetrahydrofuran for this reaction instead of anhydrous zinc chloride (or even water).
Reactions 13 onwards is no longer being investigated due to environmental concerns about mercury content and potential risks from dust inhalation when performing these tests with such volatile materials.
Reaction 15 onwards is no longer being investigated due to the high reactivity of iodine gas, which can potentially cause explosions when it comes into contact with other chemicals in the lab and also an explosion risk if transferred over large distances (e.g., from a cylinder or storage drum). One incident occurred at Texas Tech University where, during a transfer operation between two cylinders inside a laboratory building, one container leaked liquid chlorine-dioxide solution on top of another stainless steel tank filled with iodides and water
The reaction mixture was heated until yellow fumes were emitted; this resulted in an instant explosion that caused extensive damage to both pieces of equipment as well as knocking out windows in several rooms within the same wing. Iodine gas and chlorine dioxide gas were released.
-acetyl bromide + acetone – no reaction
-ammonia + hydrogen peroxide: will explode if heated to temperatures over 60 degrees Celsius and can react with other toxic chemicals around it, including potassium ferricyanide (KF), sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) or benzoyl chloride which are typically used in labs for the synthesis of organic substances
-copper iodate/sulfuric acid mixture – nothing happens when mixed together; but copper ions from copper sulfates form a precipitate on contact with the sulfuric acid’s oxides and hydroxides. This is due to oppositely charged ionization between Fe+ and Cu+
-hydrogen peroxide + hydrochloric acid: produces a solution of water and hydrogen chloride gas (HCl) which is the primary constituent in gastric acid. This can be used to clean glassware, remove adhesive residue from stamps or labels on plastic containers
-iodine tincture – use for making herbal medicine preparations that need to have an alcohol base; mix with vodka or other types of alcohols before using them as a solvent
-potassium iodide + silver nitrate: when combined, they will cause potassium iodide ions to oxidize into iodine vapor which will then react with silver nitrates’ electrons causing them to form metallic silver particles due to the release of latent heat energy
-potassium ferricyanide + acetic acid: the reaction produces a dark blue solution that turns red when it comes into contact with an alkaline reagent like potassium hydroxide. Potassium ferricyanide is also used as an antiseptic and disinfectant
–citrus oil – mixed in small quantities, this can be used to remove stains on carpets or other fabrics; mix with dish soap before using it for cleaning purposes
*note: do not drink hydrogen peroxide! It will cause stomach irritation if ingested. Ingesting iodine tincture should only happen under medical supervision due to its toxicity levels.*
*do NOT use silver nitrate on anything but glassware! It will react with polyester, rayon and nylon fabrics because they have nucleophilic groups. Hydrogen peroxide will also form a potentially explosive mixture when combined with an acid like hydrochloric or sulfuric.*
*Silver nitrate is best used for stains on glassware; make sure to wear gloves and goggles when handling it so you don’t get any in your eyes! Do not use silver nitrate if the stain is more than 24 hours old as this can result in negative reactions such as severe skin irritation, scarring of tissues, blisters, pneumonia-related death.
*When using iodine tincture on clothes that are colored bright blue or green (think jeans), be aware that the color could lighten over time.
*Nitric acid is best used to destroy organic matter and only use it in a well-ventilated area! Avoid contact with skin as the fumes are corrosive, can cause burns or even death if inhaled.
o for this one when you need to dissolve greasy substances like candle wax that have been spilled on your clothes – just make sure not to put too much on at once because this could also erode clothes fibers due to how acidic nitric acid is. You should rub the fabric together gently before rinsing thoroughly in water so all of the residue has gone away completely.*
*There’s no doubt about it: hydrochloric acid will create an exothermic reaction (think fizzy soda) with any other substance you add to it. The best for this is aluminum because when the reaction happens, it will create a silver mirror-like effect on the surface of your metal and make small bubbles appear everywhere. It may also change colors depending on what kind of solution was used.*
*Sulfuric acid can be difficult to work with in some cases because if there’s too much water present in the mixture (or maybe not enough), then sulfur dioxide gas could form which is hazardous – especially since even just breathing it in long enough can have an impact on your lungs or cause respiratory problems like asthma attacks! So keep that one away from children and never use outdoors, only indoors.*
*Nitric oxide makes up around 80% of the air we breathe and is essential to life on Earth, but too much exposure can be very dangerous. This ingredient creates a strong oxidizing agent that will react with many different things in order to produce other chemical reactions like an explosion. There’s no need for any special equipment or safety gear as long as you keep it away from children and do not use near open flames.* *Hydrochloric acid is something else that should be kept away from kids and should never EVER go near your eyes because it could cause permanent damage! If accidentally ingested, call poison control immediately (or if swallowed). It’s used most commonly in labs for stripping paint off metal – so just don’t eat anything while around this one.*